In the course of their operating activities, Volkswagen AG and the companies in which it is directly or indirectly invested become involved in a great number of legal disputes and governmental proceedings in Germany and abroad. In particular, such legal disputes and other proceedings may occur in relation to suppliers, dealers, customers, employees, or investors. For the companies involved, these may result in payment or other obligations. Above all, in cases where US customers assert claims for vehicle defects individually or by way of a class action, highly cost-intensive measures may have to be taken and substantial compensation or punitive damages paid. Corresponding risks also result from US patent infringement proceedings.
Risks may also emerge in connection with the adherence to regulatory requirements. This particularly applies in the case of regulatory vagueness that may be interpreted differently by Volkswagen and the authorities responsible for the respective regulations. In addition, legal risks can arise from the criminal activities of individual persons, which even the best compliance management system can never completely prevent.
Where transparent and economically viable, adequate insurance coverage was taken out for these risks. For the identifiable and measurable risks, provisions considered appropriate were recognized and information about contingent liabilities disclosed. As some risks cannot be assessed or can only be assessed to a limited extent, the possibility of loss or damage not being covered by the insured amounts and provisions cannot be ruled out. This particularly applies to legal risk assessment regarding the diesel issue.
On September 18, 2015, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) publicly announced in a “Notice of Violation” that irregularities in relation to nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions had been discovered in emissions tests on certain vehicles of Volkswagen Group with type 2.0 l diesel engines in the USA. It was alleged that Volkswagen had installed undisclosed engine management software installed in 2009 to 2015 model year 2.0 l diesel engines to circumvent NOx emissions testing regulations in the USA in order to comply with certification requirements. The California Air Resources Board (CARB), a unit of the US environmental authority of California, announced its own enforcement investigation into this matter.
In this context, Volkswagen AG announced that noticeable discrepancies between the figures achieved in testing and in actual road use had been identified in around eleven million vehicles worldwide with type EA 189 diesel engines. The vast majority of these engines were type EA 189 Euro 5 engines.
On November 2, 2015, the EPA issued a “Notice of Violation” alleging that irregularities had also been discovered in the software installed in US vehicles with type V6 3.0 l diesel engines. CARB also issued a letter announcing its own enforcement investigation into this matter. AUDI AG has confirmed that at least three auxiliary emission control devices were inadequately disclosed in the course of the US approval documentation. Around 113 thousand vehicles from the 2009 to 2016 model years with certain six-cylinder diesel engines were affected in the USA and Canada, where regulations governing NOx emissions limits for vehicles are stricter than those in other parts of the world.
Numerous court and governmental proceedings were subsequently initiated in the USA and the rest of the world. During the reporting period, we succeeded in ending most significant court and governmental proceedings in the USA by concluding settlement agreements. This includes, in particular, settlements with the US Department of Justice (DOJ). Outside the USA, we also reached agreements with regard to the implementation of the technical measures with numerous authorities.
The Supervisory Board of Volkswagen AG formed a special committee that coordinates the activities relating to the diesel issue for the Supervisory Board.
The global law firm Jones Day was instructed by Volkswagen AG to carry out an extensive investigation of the diesel issue in light of the DOJ’s and the Braunschweig public prosecutor’s criminal investigations as well as other investigations and proceedings which were expected. Jones Day was instructed by Volkswagen AG to present factual evidence to the DOJ. To resolve US criminal law charges, Volkswagen AG and the DOJ entered into a Plea Agreement, which includes a Statement of Facts containing a summary of the factual allegations which the DOJ considered relevant to the settlement with Volkswagen AG. The Statement of Facts is based in part on Jones Day’s factual findings as well as the evidence identified by the DOJ itself.
Jones Day has completed the work required to assist Volkswagen AG in assessing the criminal charges in the USA with respect to the diesel issue. However, work in respect of the legal proceedings which are still pending in the USA and the rest of the world is ongoing and will require considerable efforts and a considerable period of time. In connection with this work, Volkswagen AG is being advised by a number of external law firms.
Furthermore, in September 2015, Volkswagen AG filed a criminal complaint in Germany against unknown persons as did AUDI AG. Volkswagen AG and AUDI AG are cooperating with all responsible authorities in the scope of reviewing the incidents.
Potential consequences for Volkswagen’s results of operations, financial position and net assets could emerge primarily in the following legal areas:
1. Coordination with the authorities on technical measures
Based on decisions dated October 15, 2015, the Kraftfahrt-Bundesamt (KBA – German Federal Motor Transport Authority) ordered the Volkswagen Passenger Cars, Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles and SEAT brands to recall all the diesel vehicles that had been issued with vehicle type approval by the KBA from among the eleven million vehicles affected with type EA 189 engines. The recall concerns the member states of the European Union (EU28). On December 10, 2015 a similar decision was issued regarding Audi vehicles with the EA 189 engine. The timetable and action plan forming the basis for the recall order corresponded to the proposals presented in advance by Volkswagen. Depending on the technical complexity of the concerned remedial actions, this means that the Volkswagen Group has been recalling the affected vehicles, of which there are around 8.5 million in total in the EU28 countries, to the service workshops since
January 2016. The remedial actions differ in scope depending on the engine variant. The technical measures cover software and in some cases hardware modifications, depending on the series and model year. The technical measures for all vehicles in the European Union have since been approved without exception. The KBA ascertained for all clusters (groups of vehicles) that implementation of the technical measures would not bring about any adverse changes in fuel consumption figures, CO2 emissions figures, engine power, maximum torque and noise emissions. Once the modifications have been made, the vehicles will thus also continue to comply with the legal requirements and the emission standards applicable in each case. The technical measures for all affected vehicles with type EA 189 engines in the European Union were approved without exception, and implemented in most cases.
In some countries outside the EU – among others South Korea, Taiwan and Turkey – national type approval is based on prior recognition of the EC/ECE type approval; the technical measures must therefore be approved by the national authorities. With the exception of South Korea and Chile, we were able to conclude this approval process in all countries. There, the majority of approvals were likewise granted; in relation to the pending approvals, Volkswagen is in close contact with the authorities.
In addition, there is an intensive exchange of information with the authorities in the USA and Canada, where Volkswagen’s proposed modifications in relation to the four-cylinder and the six-cylinder diesel engines also have to be approved. Due to NOx limits that are considerably stricter than in the EU and the rest of the world, it is a greater technical challenge here to refit the vehicles so that the emission standards defined in the settlement agreements for these vehicles can be achieved.
For many months, AUDI AG has been intensively checking all diesel concepts for possible discrepancies and retrofit potentials. A systematic review process for all engine and gear variants has been underway since 2016.
On June 14, 2017, based on a technical error in the parameterization of the transmission software for a limited number of specific Audi A7/A8 models that AUDI AG itself discovered and reported to the KBA, the KBA issued an order under which a correction proposed by AUDI AG will be submitted. The technical error lies in the fact that, in the cases concerned, by way of exception a specific function that is standard in all other vehicle concepts is not implemented in actual road use. In Europe, this affects around 24,800 units of certain Audi A7/A8 models. The KBA has not categorized this error as an unlawful defeat device.
On July 21, 2017, AUDI AG offered a software-based retrofit program for up to 850,000 vehicles with V6 and V8 TDI engines meeting the Euro 5 and Euro 6 emission standards in Europe and other markets except the USA and Canada. The measure will mainly serve to further improve the vehicles’ emissions in real driving conditions in inner city areas beyond the legal requirements. This was done in close cooperation with the authorities, which were provided with detailed reports, especially the German Federal Ministry of Transport and the KBA. The retrofit package comprises voluntary measures and, to a small extent, measures directed by the authorities; these are measures taken within the scope of a recall, which were proposed by AUDI AG itself, reported to the KBA and taken up and ordered by the latter. The voluntary tests have already reached an advanced stage, but have not yet been completed. The measures adopted and mandated by the KBA involved the recall of different diesel vehicles with a V6 or V8 engine meeting the Euro 6 emission standard, for which the KBA categorized certain emission strategies as an unlawful defeat device. From July 2017 to January 2018, the measures proposed by AUDI AG were adopted and mandated in various decisions by the KBA on vehicle models with V6 and V8 TDI engines.
Currently, AUDI AG assumes that the total costs of the software-based retrofit program including the amount based on recalls will be manageable and has recognized corresponding balance-sheet risk provisions. Should additional measures become necessary as a result of the investigations by AUDI AG and the consultations with the KBA, AUDI AG will quickly implement these as part of the retrofit program in the interest of customers.
2. Criminal and administrative proceedings worldwide (excluding the USA/Canada)
In addition to the described approval processes with the responsible registration authorities, in some countries criminal investigations/misdemeanor proceedings (for example, by the public prosecutor’s office in Braunschweig and Munich, Germany) and/or administrative proceedings (for example, by the Bundesanstalt für Finanzdienstleistungsaufsicht, BaFin – the German Federal Financial Supervisory Authority) have been opened. The public prosecutor’s offices in Braunschweig and Munich are investigating the core issue of the criminal investigations. Whether this will result in fines for the Company, and if so what their amount might be, is currently subject to estimation risks. According to Volkswagen’s estimates so far, the likelihood of a sanction in the majority of these proceedings is less than 50%. Contingent liabilities have therefore been disclosed in cases where they can be assessed and for which the likelihood of a sanction was deemed not lower than 10%.
3. Product-related lawsuits worldwide (excluding the USA/ Canada)
In principle, it is possible that customers in the affected markets will file civil lawsuits against Volkswagen AG and other Volkswagen Group companies. In addition, it is possible that importers and dealers could assert claims against Volkswagen AG and other Volkswagen Group companies, e.g. through recourse claims. As well as individual lawsuits, class action lawsuits are possible in various jurisdictions (albeit not in Germany). Furthermore, in a number of markets it is possible that consumer and/or environmental organizations will apply for an injunction or assert claims for a declaratory judgment or for damages.
In the context of the diesel issue, various lawsuits are currently pending against Volkswagen AG and other Volkswagen Group companies at present.
There are pending class action proceedings and lawsuits brought by consumer and/or environmental associations against Volkswagen AG and other companies of the Volkswagen Group in various countries such as Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, China, the Czech Republic, Israel, Italy, Mexico, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Switzerland, Taiwan and the United Kingdom. The class action proceedings are lawsuits aimed among other things at asserting damages or, as is the case in the Netherlands, at a declaratory judgment that customers are entitled to damages. With the exception of Brazil, where there has already been a non-binding judgment in the first instance, the amount of these damages cannot yet be quantified more precisely due to the early stage of the proceedings. Volkswagen does not estimate the litigants’ prospect of success to be more than 50% in any of the class action proceedings.
In South Korea, various mass proceedings are pending (in some of these individual lawsuits several hundred litigants have been aggregated). These lawsuits have been filed to assert damages and to rescind the purchase contract including repayment of the purchase price. Due to special circumstances in the market and specific characteristics of the South Korean legal system, Volkswagen estimates the litigants’ prospects of success in the South Korean mass proceedings mentioned above to be inherently higher than in other jurisdictions outside the USA and Canada. On May 12, 2017, one first-instance judgment was delivered in these proceedings in South Korea during the fiscal year, in which the court completely dismissed an action filed to assert criminal damages over pollution. The judgment has since become binding.
Contingent liabilities have been disclosed for pending class action and mass proceedings that can be assessed and for which the chance of success was deemed not implausible. Provisions were recognized to a small extent.
Furthermore, individual lawsuits and similar proceedings are pending against Volkswagen AG and other Volkswagen Group companies in numerous countries. In Germany, there are around 9,500 individual lawsuits. In Italy, Austria and Spain, lawsuits numbering in the low three-digit range and in France and Ireland individual lawsuits in the two-digit range are pending against Volkswagen AG and other companies of the Volkswagen Group, most of which are aimed at asserting damages or rescinding the purchase contract.
In addition, on November 29, 2017, Volkswagen AG was served with an action brought by financialright GmbH asserting the rights assigned to it by a total of approximately 15,000 customers in Germany. This action seeks the payment of around €350 million in return for restitution of the vehicles.
In Switzerland, a claim for damages was brought against Volkswagen AG in December 2017 from the assigned rights of some 6,000 customers; the stated amount in dispute is approximately 30 million Swiss francs.
According to Volkswagen’s estimates so far, the litigants’ prospect of success is below 50% in the vast majority of the individual lawsuits. Contingent liabilities have therefore been disclosed for those lawsuits that can be assessed and for which the chance of success was deemed not implausible.
It is too early to estimate how many customers will take advantage of the option to file lawsuits in the future, beyond the existing lawsuits, or what their prospects of success will be.
4. Lawsuits filed by investors worldwide (excluding the USA/ Canada)
Investors from Germany and abroad have filed claims for damages against Volkswagen AG – in some cases along with Porsche Automobil Holding SE (Porsche SE) as joint and several debtors – based on purported losses due to alleged misconduct in capital market communications in connection with the diesel issue.
The vast majority of these investor lawsuits are currently pending at the District Court (Landgericht) in Braunschweig. On August 5, 2016, the District Court in Braunschweig ordered that common questions of law and fact relevant to the lawsuits pending at the District Court in Braunschweig be referred to the Higher Regional Court (Oberlandesgericht) in Braunschweig for a binding declaratory decision pursuant to the German Act on Model Case Proceedings in Disputes Regarding Capital Market Information (Kapitalanleger-Musterverfahrensgesetz – KapMuG). In this proceeding, common questions of law and fact relevant to these actions shall be adjudicated in a consolidated manner by the Higher Regional Court in Braunschweig (model case proceedings). All lawsuits at the District Court in Braunschweig will be stayed pending up until resolution of the common issues, unless they can be dismissed for reasons independent of the common issues that are adjudicated in the model case proceedings. The resolution of the common questions of law and fact in the model case proceedings will be binding for all pending cases in the stayed lawsuits.
At the District Court in Stuttgart, further investor lawsuits have been filed against Volkswagen AG, in some cases along with Porsche SE as joint and several debtors. On December 6, 2017, the District Court in Stuttgart issued an order for reference to the Higher Regional Court in Stuttgart in relation to procedural issues, particularly for clarification of jurisdiction. On account of the diesel issue, model case proceedings against Porsche SE are also pending before the Higher Regional Court in Stuttgart.
Further investor lawsuits have been filed at various courts in Germany as well as in Austria and the Netherlands. In Austria, the Supreme Court ruled on July 7, 2017 that the investor lawsuits against Volkswagen AG do not fall within the jurisdiction of the Austrian courts. Consequently, all but one of the investor lawsuits that were formerly pending in Austria have been dismissed or withdrawn. The last pending lawsuit has been dismissed at first instance.
Worldwide (excluding USA and Canada), investor lawsuits, judicial applications for dunning procedures and conciliation proceedings, and claims under the KapMuG are currently pending against Volkswagen in connection with the diesel issue, with the claims totaling approximately €9 billion. Volkswagen remains of the opinion that it duly complied with its capital market obligations. Therefore, no provisions have been recognized for these investor lawsuits. Insofar as the chance of success was estimated at not lower than 10%, contingent liabilities have been disclosed.
5. Proceedings in the USA/Canada
Following the publication of the EPA’s “Notices of Violation”, Volkswagen AG and other Volkswagen Group companies have been the subject of intense scrutiny, ongoing investigations (civil and criminal) and civil litigation. Volkswagen AG and other Volkswagen Group companies have received subpoenas and inquiries from state attorneys general and other governmental authorities and are responding to such investigations and inquiries.
In addition, Volkswagen AG and other Volkswagen Group companies in the USA/Canada are facing litigation on a number of different fronts relating to the matters described in the EPA’s “Notices of Violation”.
A large number of putative class action lawsuits by customers and dealers have been filed in US federal courts and consolidated for pretrial coordination purposes in the federal multidistrict litigation proceeding in the State of California.
On January 4, 2016, the DOJ, Civil Division, on behalf of the EPA, initiated a civil complaint against Volkswagen AG, AUDI AG and certain other Volkswagen Group companies. The action sought statutory penalties under the US Clean Air Act, as well as certain injunctive relief, and was consolidated for pretrial coordination purposes in the California multidistrict litigation.
On January 12, 2016, CARB announced that it intended to seek civil fines for alleged violations of the California Health & Safety Code and various CARB regulations.
In June 2016, Volkswagen AG, Volkswagen Group of America, Inc. and certain affiliates reached settlement agreements with the DOJ on behalf of the EPA, CARB and the California Attorney General, private plaintiffs represented by a Plaintiffs’ Steering Committee (PSC) in the multidistrict litigation pending in California, and the U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC). These settlement agreements resolved certain civil claims made in relation to affected diesel vehicles with 2.0 l TDI engines from the Volkswagen Passenger Cars and Audi brands in the USA. Volkswagen AG and certain affiliates also entered into a First Partial Consent Decree with the DOJ, EPA, CARB and the California Attorney General, which was lodged with the court on June 28, 2016. On October 18, 2016, a fairness hearing on whether final approval should be granted was held, and on October 25, 2016, the court granted final approval of the settlement agreements and the partial consent order. A number of class members have filed appeals to an US appellate court from the order approving the settlements.
The settlements include buyback or, for leased vehicles, early lease termination, or a free emissions modification of the vehicles, provided that the EPA and CARB approve the modification. Volkswagen will also make additional cash payments to affected current owners or lessees as well as certain former owners or lessees.
Volkswagen also agreed to support environmental programs. The company will pay USD 2.7 billion over three years into an environmental trust, managed by a trustee appointed by the court, to offset excess nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. Volkswagen will also invest a total of USD 2.0 billion over ten years in zero emissions vehicle infrastructure as well as corresponding access and awareness initiatives.
Volkswagen AG and certain affiliates also entered into a separate Partial Consent Decree with CARB and the California Attorney General resolving certain claims under California unfair competition, false advertising, and consumer protection laws related to both the 2.0 l and 3.0 l TDI vehicles, which was lodged with the court on July 7, 2016. Under the terms of the agreement, Volkswagen agreed to pay California USD 86 million. The court entered judgment on the Partial Consent Decree on September 1, 2016 and the USD 86 million payment was made on September 28, 2016.
On December 20, 2016, Volkswagen entered into a Second Partial Consent Decree, subject to court approval, with the DOJ, EPA, CARB and the California Attorney General that resolved claims for injunctive relief under the Clean Air Act and California environmental, consumer protection and false advertising laws related to the 3.0 l TDI vehicles. Under the terms of this Consent Decree, Volkswagen agreed to implement a buyback and lease termination program for Generation 1 3.0 l TDI vehicles and a free emissions recall and modification program for Generation 2 3.0 l TDI vehicles, and to pay USD 225 million into the environmental mitigation trust that has been established pursuant to the First Partial Consent Decree. The Second Partial Consent Decree was lodged with the court on December 20, 2016 and approved on May 17, 2017.
In addition, on December 20, 2016, Volkswagen entered into an additional, concurrent California Second Partial Consent Decree, subject to court approval, with CARB and the California Attorney General that resolved claims for injunctive relief under California environmental, consumer protection and false advertising laws related to the 3.0 l TDI vehicles. Under the terms of this Consent Decree, Volkswagen agreed to provide additional injunctive relief to California, including the implementation of a “Green City” initiative and the introduction of three new Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) models in California by 2020, as well as a USD 25 million payment to CARB to support the availability of BEVs in California.
On January 11, 2017, Volkswagen entered into a Third Partial Consent Decree with the DOJ and EPA that resolved claims for civil penalties and injunctive relief under the Clean Air Act related to the 2.0 l and 3.0 l TDI vehicles. Volkswagen agreed to pay USD 1.45 billion (plus any accrued interest) to resolve the civil penalty and injunctive relief claims under the Clean Air Act, as well as the customs claims of the US Customs and Border Protection. Under the Third Partial Consent Decree, the injunctive relief includes monitoring, auditing and compliance obligations. This Consent Decree, which was subject to public comment, was lodged with the court on January 11, 2017 and approved on April 13, 2017. Also on January 11, 2017, Volkswagen entered into a settlement agreement with the DOJ to resolve any claims under the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery and Enforcement Act of 1989 and agreed to pay USD 50 million (plus any accrued interest), specifically denying any liability and expressly disputing any claims.
On July 21, 2017, the federal court in the multidistrict litigation in California approved the Third California Partial Consent Decree, in which Volkswagen AG and certain affiliates agreed with the California Attorney General and CARB to pay USD 153.8 million in civil penalties and cost reimbursements. These penalties covered California environmental penalties for both the 2.0 l and 3.0 l TDI vehicles. An agreement in principle had been reached on January 11, 2017.
The DOJ also opened a criminal investigation focusing on allegations that various federal law criminal offenses were committed. On January 11, 2017, Volkswagen AG agreed to plead guilty to three federal criminal felony counts, and to pay a USD 2.8 billion criminal penalty. Pursuant to the terms of this agreement, Volkswagen will be on probation for three years and will work with an independent monitor for three years. The independent monitor will assess and oversee the company’s compliance with the terms of the resolution. This includes overseeing the implementation of measures to further strengthen compliance, reporting and monitoring systems, and an enhanced ethics program. Volkswagen will also continue to cooperate with the DOJ’s ongoing investigation of individual employees or former employees who may be responsible for criminal violations.
Moreover, investigations by various US regulatory and government authorities are ongoing, including in areas relating to securities, financing and tax.
On January 31, 2017, Volkswagen AG, Volkswagen Group of America, Inc. and certain affiliates entered into a settlement agreement with private plaintiffs represented by the PSC in the multidistrict litigation pending in California, and a consent order with the FTC. These agreements resolved certain civil claims made in relation to affected diesel vehicles with 3.0 l TDI engines from the Volkswagen, Audi and Porsche brands in the USA. On February 14, 2017, the court preliminarily approved the settlement agreement with private plaintiffs. On May 11, 2017, the court held a fairness hearing on whether approval should be granted and on May 17, 2017, the court granted final approval of the settlement agreement and the partial stipulated consent order.
Under the settlements, consumers’ options and compensation will depend on whether their vehicles are classified as Generation 1 or Generation 2. Generation 1 (model years 2009-2012) consumers will have the option of a buyback, early lease termination, trade-in, or a free emissions modification, provided that EPA and CARB approve the modification. Additionally, Generation 1 owners and lessees, as well as certain former owners and lessees, will be eligible to receive cash payments.
Generation 2 (model years 2013-2016) consumers will receive a free emissions-compliant repair to bring the vehicles into compliance with the emissions standards to which they were originally certified, as well as cash payments. Volkswagen has received approval from the EPA and CARB for emissions-compliant repairs within the time limits set out in the settlement agreement. Volkswagen will also make cash payments to certain former Generation 2 owners or lessees.
In September 2016, Volkswagen announced that it had finalized an agreement to resolve the claims of Volkswagen branded franchise dealers in the USA relating to TDI vehicles and other matters asserted concerning the value of the franchise. The settlement agreement includes a cash payment of up to USD 1.208 billion, and additional benefits to resolve alleged past, current, and future claims of losses in franchise value. On January 18, 2017, a fairness hearing on whether final approval should be granted was held, and on January 23, 2017, the court granted final approval of the settlement agreement.
Additionally, in the USA, some putative class actions, some individual customers’ lawsuits and some state or municipal claims have been filed in state courts.
Volkswagen reached separate agreements with the attorneys general of 45 US states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico, to resolve their existing or potential consumer protection and unfair trade practices claims – in connection with both 2.0 l TDI and 3.0 l TDI vehicles in the USA – for a settlement amount of USD 622 million. Five states did not join these settlements and still have consumer claims outstanding: Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Vermont and West Virginia. Volkswagen has also reached separate agreements with the attorneys general of eleven US states (Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Washington) to resolve their existing or potential future claims for civil penalties and injunctive relief for alleged violations of environmental laws for a settlement amount of 207 million. The attorneys general of ten other US states (Illinois, Maryland, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, New Hampshire, New Mexico, Ohio, Tennessee and Texas) and some municipalities have also filed suits in state and federal courts against Volkswagen AG, Volkswagen Group of America, Inc. and certain affiliates, seeking civil penalties and injunctive relief for alleged violations of environmental laws. Illinois, Maryland, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, New Hampshire, Ohio, Tennessee and Texas participated in the state settlements described above with respect to consumer protection and unfair trade practices claims, but those settlements did not include claims for environmental penalties. The environmental claims of two other states – Alabama and Wyoming – have been dismissed as preempted by federal law. Alabama has appealed this dismissal.
In addition to the lawsuits described above, for which provisions have been recognized, a putative class action has been filed on behalf of purchasers of Volkswagen AG American Depositary Receipts, alleging a drop in price purportedly resulting from the matters described in the EPA’s “Notices of Violation”. A putative class action has also been filed on behalf of purchasers of certain USD-denominated Volkswagen bonds, alleging that these bonds were trading at artificially inflated prices due to Volkswagen’s alleged misstatements and that the value of these bonds declined after the EPA issued its “Notices of Violation”.
These lawsuits have also been consolidated in the federal multidistrict litigation proceeding in the State of California described above. Volkswagen is of the opinion that it duly complied with its capital market obligations. Therefore, no provisions have been recognized. In addition, contingent liabilities have not been disclosed as they currently cannot be measured.
In Canada, civil consumer claims and regulatory investigations have been initiated for vehicles with 2.0 l and 3.0 l TDI engines. On December 19, 2016, Volkswagen AG and other Canadian and US Volkswagen Group companies reached a class action settlement in Canada with consumers relating to 2.0 l diesel vehicles. Also on December 19, 2016, Volkswagen Group Canada agreed with the Commissioner of Competition in Canada to a civil resolution regarding its regulatory inquiry into consumer protection issues as to those vehicles. On December 21, 2017, Volkswagen announced an agreement in principle on a proposed consumer settlement in Canada involving 3.0 l diesel vehicles. The court preliminarily approved the settlement agreement on January 12, 2018, and the notice and opt out period began on January 17, 2018. Final approval hearings are scheduled in Quebec and Ontario for April 3 and 5, 2018, respectively. On January 12, 2018, Volkswagen and the Canadian Commissioner of Competition reached a resolution related to civil consumer protection issues relating to 3.0 l diesel vehicles. Also, criminal enforcement-related investigations by the federal environmental regulator and quasi-criminal enforcement-related investigations by a provincial environmental regulator are ongoing in Canada related to 2.0 l and 3.0 l diesel vehicles. On September 15, 2017, a provincial regulator in Canada, the Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change, charged Volkswagen AG under the province’s environmental statute with one count alleging that it caused or permitted the operation of model year 2010–2014 Volkswagen and Audi brand 2.0 l diesel vehicles that did not comply with prescribed emission standards. Following initial court appearances on November 15, 2017 and February 7, 2018, the matter was put over to April 4, 2018 pending ongoing evidence disclosure. No trial date has been set. Provisions have been recognized for possible obligations stemming from pending lawsuits in Canada.
Moreover, in Canada, two securities class actions by investors in Volkswagen AG American Depositary Receipts and shares are pending against Volkswagen AG in the Quebec and Ontario provincial courts. These actions allege misrepresentations and omissions in financial reporting issued from 2009–2015 stemming from the diesel issue. The proposed class periods are for residents in the provinces who purchased the relevant securities between March 12, 2009 and September 18, 2015, and held all or some of the acquired securities until after the alleged first corrective disclosures. Discovery has not begun. In both actions, motions for certification were filed. In the Quebec matter, the motion was heard on February 5 and 6, 2018 and the court’s decision is on reserve. In the Ontario matter, the motion is scheduled for hearing on July 10 and 11, 2018.
In addition, putative class action and joinder lawsuits by customers, and a certified environmental class action on behalf of residents, remain pending in certain provincial courts in Canada.
An assessment of the underlying situation is not possible at this early stage of those proceedings.
6. Additional proceedings
With its ruling from November 8, 2017, the Higher Regional Court of Celle ordered, upon the request of three US funds, the appointment of a special auditor for Volkswagen AG. The special auditor should examine whether there was a breach of duties on behalf of the members of the Board of Management and Supervisory Board of Volkswagen AG in connection with the diesel issue starting from June 22, 2006 and if this resulted in damages for Volkswagen AG. The ruling from the Higher Regional Court of Celle is formally legally binding. However, Volkswagen AG lodged a constitutional complaint toward the German Federal Constitutional Court regarding the infringement of its constitutionally guaranteed rights. It is currently unclear when the Federal Constitutional Court will reach a decision on this matter.
In addition, the District Court of Hanover has filed a second motion for the appointment of a special auditor for Volkswagen AG, which is also aimed at the examination of transactions in connection with the diesel issue. This proceeding will be suspended until the ruling has been announced by the Federal Constitutional Court.
7. Risk assessment regarding the diesel issue
To protect against the currently known legal risks related to the diesel issue, provisions of approximately €2.0 billion exist as of December 31, 2017 on the basis of existing information and current assessments. Beyond this, appropriate provisions have been recognized for defense and legal advice expenses.
Insofar as these can be adequately measured at this stage, total contingent liabilities in relation to the diesel issue to the aggregate amount of €4.3 billion (previous year: €3.2 billion), of which lawsuits filed by investors account for €3.4 billion (previous year: €3.1 billion), were disclosed in the notes. The provisions recognized for this matter and the contingent liabilities disclosed as well as the other latent legal risks are partially subject to substantial estimation risks given the complexity of the individual factors, the ongoing approval process with the authorities and the fact that the independent, comprehensive investigations have not yet been completed.
In line with IAS 37.92, no further statements have been made concerning estimates of financial impact or about uncertainty regarding the amount or maturity of provisions and contingent liabilities in relation to the diesel issue. This is so as to not compromise the results of the proceedings or the interests of the Company.
Additional important legal cases
In 2011, ARFB Anlegerschutz UG (haftungsbeschränkt) brought an action against Volkswagen AG and Porsche Automobil Holding SE for claims for damages for allegedly violating disclosure requirements under capital market law in connection with the acquisition of ordinary shares in Volkswagen AG by Porsche in 2008. The damages currently being sought based on allegedly assigned rights amounted to approximately €2.26 billion plus interest. In April 2016, the District Court in Hanover had formulated numerous objects of declaratory judgment that the cartel senate of the Higher Regional Court in Celle will decide on in model case proceedings under the KapMuG. In the first hearing on October 12, 2017, the senate indicated that it currently does not see claims against Volkswagen AG as justified, both in view of a lack of substantiated evidence and for legal reasons. Some of the desired objects of declaratory judgment on the litigants’ side may also be inadmissible, it said. Volkswagen AG sees the statements of the court’s senate as confirmation that the claims made against the company have absolutely no basis.
At the time (2010/2011), other investors had also asserted claims – including claims against Volkswagen AG – arising out of the same circumstances in an approximate total amount of €4.6 billion and initiated conciliation proceedings. Volkswagen AG always refused to participate in these conciliation proceedings; since then, these claims have not been pursued further.
In 2011, the European Commission conducted searches at European truck manufacturers on suspicion of an unlawful exchange of information during the period 1997–2011 and issued a statement of objections to MAN, Scania and the other truck manufacturers concerned in November 2014. With its settlement decision in July 2016, the European Commission fined five European truck manufacturers. MAN’s fine was waived in full as the company had informed the European Commission about the irregularities as a key witness.
In September 2017, the European Commission then fined Scania €0.88 billion. Scania has appealed to the European Court in Luxembourg and will use all means at its disposal to defend itself. Scania had already recognized a provision of €0.4 billion in 2016.
Furthermore, antitrust lawsuits for damages from customers were received. As is the case in any antitrust proceedings, this may result in further lawsuits for damages. Neither provisions nor contingent liabilities were stated because the early stage of proceedings makes an assessment currently impossible.
The Annual General Meeting of MAN SE approved the conclusion of a control and profit and loss transfer agreement between MAN SE and Volkswagen Truck & Bus GmbH (formerly Truck & Bus GmbH), a subsidiary of Volkswagen AG, in June 2013. In July 2013, award proceedings were instituted to review the appropriateness of the cash settlement set out in the agreement in accordance with section 305 of the Aktiengesetz (AktG – German Stock Corporation Act) and the cash compensation in accordance with section 304 of the AktG. It is not uncommon for noncontrolling interest shareholders to institute such proceedings. In July 2015, the Munich Regional Court ruled in the first instance that the amount of the cash settlement payable to the noncontrolling interest shareholders of MAN should be increased from €80.89 to €90.29 per share; at the same time, the amount of the cash compensation was confirmed. The assessment of liability for put options and compensation rights granted to noncontrolling interest shareholders was adjusted in 2015. Both applicants and Volkswagen Truck & Bus GmbH have appealed to the Higher Regional Court in Munich. Volkswagen continues to maintain that the results of the valuation are correct. The appropriateness of the valuation was confirmed by the audit firms engaged by the parties and by the court-appointed auditor of the agreement.
Within the scope of the European Commission's ongoing antitrust investigations regarding German automakers, authorities examined documents in the offices of Volkswagen AG in Wolfsburg and AUDI AG in Ingolstadt as part of an announced review. The Volkswagen Group and the Group brands concerned have been cooperating fully and for a long time with the European Commission and have submitted a corresponding application. It is currently unclear whether the European Commission will instigate formal proceedings.
In addition, a few national and international authorities have initiated antitrust investigations. Volkswagen is cooperating closely with the responsible authorities in these investigations. An assessment of the underlying situation is not possible at this early stage.
Since November 2016, Volkswagen has been responding to information requests from the EPA and CARB related to automatic transmissions in certain vehicles with petrol engines.
Additionally, fourteen putative class actions have been filed against Audi and certain affiliates alleging that defendants concealed the existence of “defeat devices” in Audi brand vehicles with automatic transmissions. All of these putative class actions have been transferred to the federal multidistrict litigation proceeding in the State of California, and plaintiffs filed a consolidated class action complaint on October 12, 2017, which Volkswagen AG and certain of its affiliates moved to dismiss on December 11, 2017. On January 16, 2018, plaintiffs filed an opposition to the motion to dismiss and the court has set a deadline of February 16, 2018 for defendants to file a reply. A hearing is scheduled for May 11, 2018. On December 22, 2017, a mass action on behalf of approximately 75 individual plaintiffs alleging similar claims was filed in a California state court, which was removed to the Northern District of California on January 25, 2018.
In Canada, two similar putative class actions, including a national class, have been filed in Ontario and Quebec provincial courts against AUDI AG, Volkswagen AG and US and Canadian affiliates regarding alleged CO2 “defeat devices” in certain petrol Audi models with automatic transmissions. Both of the Canadian actions are in the pre-certification stage. Contingent liabilities have therefore been disclosed in cases where they can be assessed and for which the likelihood of a sanction was deemed not lower than 10%.
From July through November 2017, plaintiffs filed numerous complaints in various US jurisdictions on behalf of putative classes of purchasers of German luxury vehicles against several automobile manufacturers, including Volkswagen AG and other Group companies. These complaints assert claims under the US Sherman Antitrust Act, the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act, state unfair competition and consumer protection statutes, and common law unjust enrichment. The complaints allege that since the 1990s, defendants engaged in a conspiracy to unlawfully increase the prices of German luxury vehicles by agreeing to share commercially sensitive information and to reach unlawful agreements regarding technology, costs, and suppliers. Moreover, the plaintiffs allege that the defendants agreed to limit the size of AdBlue tanks to ensure that US emissions regulators did not scrutinize the emissions control systems in defendants’ vehicles, and that such an agreement for Volkswagen was the impetus for the creation of the defeat device. On September 28, 2017, a hearing before the Judicial Panel on Multidistrict Litigation (JPML) was held, and on October 4, 2017 the JPML issued its decision consolidating and transferring these cases to Judge Breyer in the Northern District of California. On December 14, 2017, co-lead counsel were appointed representing the interests of a putative class of indirect purchasers and a putative class of direct purchasers, as well as Plaintiffs’ Steering Committee. On December 20, 2017, deadlines were set for the filing of initial and responsive pleadings and an initial case status conference scheduled for April 5, 2018, and co-lead counsel were directed to file consolidated class action complaints on behalf of the two putative classes by March 15, 2018. Neither provisions nor contingent liabilities were stated because the early stage of proceedings makes an assessment currently impossible.
From July through October 2017, plaintiffs filed claims in Ontario, Quebec and British Columbia on behalf of putative classes of purchasers of German luxury vehicles against several automobile manufacturers, including Volkswagen Canada Inc., Audi Canada Inc., and other Group companies. The claims assert causes of action under the Competition Act, common law, and Quebec’s civil law and contain similar allegations to the US complaints described in the paragraph above. Neither provisions nor contingent liabilities were stated because the early stage of proceedings makes an assessment currently impossible.
In the tax proceedings between MAN Latin America and the Brazilian tax authorities, the Brazilian tax authorities took a different view of the tax implications of the acquisition structure chosen for MAN Latin America in 2009. In December 2017, a second instance judgment was rendered in administrative court proceedings, which was negative for MAN Latin America. MAN Latin America will initiate proceedings against this judgment before the regular court in 2018. Due to the difference in the penalties plus interest which could potentially apply under Brazilian law, the estimated size of the risk in the event that the tax authorities are able to prevail overall with their view is laden with uncertainty. However, a positive outcome continues to be expected for MAN Latin America. Should the opposite occur, this could result in a risk of about €0.7 billion for the contested period from 2009 onwards, which has been stated within the contingent liabilities in the notes.
In line with IAS 37.92, no further statements have been made concerning estimates of financial impact or about uncertainty regarding the amount or maturity of provisions and contingent liabilities in relation to additional important legal cases. This is so as to not compromise the results of the proceedings or the interests of the Company.